This technical paper reviews the achievements and failures in pursuing evidence-driven and knowledge- based transboundary water cooperation in Central Asia, with a focus on scientific cooperation under the umbrella of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination in Central Asia. Despite its limitations, this scientific cooperation has contributed to facilitating evidence-based dialog between the countries, to collaborative regional exchange of knowledge and expertise and to improved access to available data and information. This paper serves to show that more promising results can be achieved if joint research, fact-finding, and planning are more widely promoted; water research is in vested on a sustainable basis; knowledge between scientists, practitioners, water users, and local populations is co-produced and shared; local capacity in science is supported and strengthened; traditional and innovative inter-, trans-, and multidisciplinary research is better used and developed.

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