Water sector reform has brought considerable changes in organizations in Kenya and Ghana while the overall water service delivery (WSD) performance has remained low. The changes have also brought a shift in the balance of power between the different actors involved in WSD as well as a number of integrity issues at an institutional level in terms of corruption risks. The paper analyzes the power distribution between the main actors involved in WSD in terms of principals and agents, in relation to identified corruption risks and organizational structures at policy and regulatory, provision, and consumption WSD levels. The results identify different water control domains that are compared to management situations described in the literature but, according to the opinion of the authors, are considered insufficient to reflect on the empirical observations found in the three case studies in Kenya and two in Ghana. Furthermore, the authors suggest complementing management practice definitions with the findings of this research.

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