This sub-section provides an overview of the institutional arrangements related to delivering water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services. Tools in this sub-section discuss the different service delivery model looking at public, private, or community-managed water utilities, as well as collaborations between these actors. Regardless the service delivery model, the aim is to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water. A strategy based on IWRM principles also presupposes that water services should be tailored according to the local socio-economic, political, and environmental contexts.
The human right to water and sanitation is internationally recognized (Tool A2.05) (UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 2002). For this right to be fulfilled, profound systems should be in place, including institutional arrangements related to delivering water-related services. Institutional arrangements may be considered one of the building blocks of an effectively functioning governance system in the water realm. Institutions support service delivery models which vary significantly across countries within the following components: policy and legislation, service delivered and its infrastructure, management system and revenue mechanism. Additionally, institutional roles in the system should be identified: service authorities, service providers and service users (Huston and Moriarty, 2018).